Calculating and recording the cost of goods sold (COGS) involves determining the direct costs associated with producing or acquiring the goods that were sold during a specific period. Here’s a step-by-step process for calculating and recording COGS:
- Understand the Components of COGS: COGS typically includes direct costs directly attributable to the production or acquisition of goods, such as the cost of raw materials, direct labor, and direct overhead. It excludes indirect costs, such as sales and marketing expenses, administrative costs, and general overhead.
- Determine the Beginning Inventory: Determine the value of the inventory you had at the beginning of the accounting period. This should include the cost of the goods that were unsold from the previous period.
- Track Purchases and Production Costs: Keep detailed records of all purchases of inventory items during the accounting period. This includes the cost of raw materials or finished goods acquired for resale, transportation costs, and any other direct costs associated with acquiring or producing the goods.
- Calculate the Cost of Goods Available for Sale: Add the value of the beginning inventory to the purchases made during the accounting period. This gives you the total cost of goods available for sale.
- Determine the Ending Inventory: At the end of the accounting period, calculate the value of the unsold inventory. This includes the cost of the goods that remain in stock.
- Calculate COGS: Subtract the value of the ending inventory from the cost of goods available for sale. The resulting amount is the cost of goods sold (COGS) for the accounting period.
- Record COGS: Make journal entries to record the COGS. Debit the COGS account to increase the expense, and credit the inventory account to reduce the inventory value.
- Maintain Documentation: Retain proper documentation, such as purchase invoices, production records, and any supporting documentation related to the cost of goods sold. Store these records securely for future reference, audits, and compliance purposes.
- Financial Statement Presentation: Present the COGS on the income statement as a separate line item or as part of the cost of sales section. Ensure that it is clearly labeled and presented consistently with your accounting practices.
- Reconcile COGS: Regularly reconcile the recorded COGS with the inventory balances and purchase records. Verify that the amounts align and investigate any discrepancies to ensure accurate reporting.
It’s important to consult with an accountant or financial professional to ensure compliance with accounting standards and regulations when calculating and recording COGS. They can provide guidance tailored to your business needs and help you accurately determine and report your cost of goods sold.